Management Principles & Policies Chapt 10

Discipline: Management

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


Clayton M. Christensen    A Harvard business professor that argued that when successful companies are confronted with a giant tech leap that transforms their markets, all choices are bad ones

What super trends are shaping the future of business?
-Marketplace becoming segmented
-Products must get to the market faster
-Some companies cannot survive disruptive innovation
-offshore buyers are changing the way we work
-knowledge is new advantage

What are the three parts of a systems model of change?
-target elements of change

Organizational change can be used to manage ___ within an organization      Conflict

Successful organization development usually involves multiple interventions. (T/F)    True

Innovations must be ___   Novel
                                                         Innovations must be novel and useful

Changing the appearance or the performance of a product or a service, or the creation of a new one is called ____ innovation.    Product

A set of interdependent processes and structures that dictate how a company seeks out problems and solutions, synthesizes ideas into a business concepts and product design, and chooses projects for funding is an ____         Innovation system

A plan for being innovative that requires a company to integrate its innovation activities and business strategies is an ____   Innovation strategy

Although commitment from all members of an organization is important, if ____ in particular are not committed to achievement of the organization’s innovation goals, the goals are unlikely to be achieved.    Senior leaders

What are two factors that contribute to resistance to change?
-change agent characteristics
-employee characteristics

What is a purpose of organization development?    Managing conflict

Carol is in charge of a meeting to decide what the company should do about the new sales people who don’t know how to follow-up with former clients. Which stage of the organizational development process is Carol participating in?   Intervention

People’s reaction to change depends largely on ____   How they were taught to handle change as children

Ted’s company has recently reorganized. He has been reassigned into a new role for which he feels unprepared, and he is not sure he can handle his new responsibilities. Why is Ted resisting the change?   Fear of failure

Positive statements that help you focus on goals, get rid of negative, self-defeating beliefs and program your subconscious mind are defined as what?    Self-affirmations

The process of creating something new that can be applied profitably is referred to as ____  Innovation

At Hudson Food Company, mangers permit experimentation, risk taking, and tolerate failure. Which step of supporting innovation does this represent?      Fostering an innovative culture and climate

Tonya sees her company eliminating jobs in order to reduce costs, but the CEO was recently given a bonus of several million dollars. The likely cause of her resistance to the current organizational change is ____  A climate of mistrust

Clayton M. Christensen thinks it's very difficult for an existing successful company to take full advantage of a technological breakthrough (T/F)   True

___ is a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market then relentlessly moves up market, eventually displacing established competitors    Disruptive innovation

What are the two types of change?   -reactive -proactive

Making changes in response to problems or opportunities as they rise is called what?   Reactive change

___ involves making carefully thought-out changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities.   Proactive change

What are the four external forces?    -demographic -tech advancements - shareholder, customer, & market changes -social & political pressures

What are some examples of demographic forces?   -age -education -skill level -gender -immigration

What are some examples of tech advancement forces?    -manufacturing automation -information technology

What are some examples of shareholder, customer, & market changes forces?    -changing customer preferences -domestic & international competition -mergers & acquisitions

What are some examples of social & political forces?    -war -values -leadership

What are the two types of internal forces?   -human resources concerns -manager's behaviors

What are some examples of human resource concerns?    -unmet needs -job dissatisfaction
-absenteeism & turnover -productivity participation/suggestions

What are some examples of manager's behaviors?   -conflict -leadership -rewards systems -structural reorganization

___ change is reintroduction of a familiar practice.   Adaptive change: the implementation of a kind of change that has already been experienced within the same organization

What type of change is lowest in complexity, cost, & uncertainty and is least threatening to employees and creates least resistance?    Adaptive change

___ change is the introduction of a practice that is new to the organization.     Innovation change

What type of change has moderate complexity, cost, and uncertainty and is apt to trigger fear and resistance?    Innovative change

___ change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry.           Radically innovative change

What type of change is the most complex, costly, and uncertain and feels extremely threatening to managers and employee job security?
Radically innovative change

Kurt Lewin    Developed a model of change to explain how to initiate, manage, and stabilize planned change.

What is Lewin's model of change?    1. unfreezing: create the motivation to change  2. changing: new information, models, and procedures  3. refreezing: support and reinforce the change

John Kotter    An expert in leadership and change management who believes that to be successful organizational change needs to follow 8 steps to avoid the eight common errors senior management usually commits. 

What did Kotter's research reveal?     -it is ineffective to skip steps -successful organizational change is more leadership than management -senior managers are advised to focus on leading rather than managing.

___ is a set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective    Organizational development

A consultant with a background in behavioral sciences who can be a catalyst in helping organizations deal with old problems in new ways is called?           Change agent 

What can organizational development be used for?    -managing conflict -revitalizing organizations -adapting to mergers

What is the organizational development process?
1. diagnosis: what is the problem?  2. intervention: what shall we do about it?  3. evaluation: how well has the intervention worked?  4. feedback: how can the diagnosis be further refined?