Mastering Bio Chapter 7
Biology/Introduction To Biology
the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentrate to a region of higher solute concentration. Does not require ATP = Passive Transport
Movement of solutes from an area of higher solute concentration to an area of lower solute concentration. Down the concentration gradient Requires NO ATP Passive transport
Define facilitated diffusion
Diffusion of BIG, charged, hydrophilic molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through channels Down the concentration gradient
Requires NO ATP Passive transport
Requires NO ATP Passive transport
Define Active Transport
The net movement of dissolved particles against their concentration gradient (from an areal of low concentration to an are of high concentration) with the help of carrier molecules Requires ATP
What are three types of passive transport?
Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis
Which of the following is an example of passive transport? A. Facilitated diffusion B. The sodium-potassium pump C. Phagocytosis D. Exocytosis E. Pinocytosis
A. Facilitated diffusion
What are examples of endocytosis?
1. Phagocytosis 2. Pinocytosis 3. Receptor Mediated endocytosis
What is phagocytosis?
What is pinocytosis?
Cell drinking (moves liquids into the cell)
What is receptor mediated endocytosis?
enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances, even though those substances may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid. Use of specific receptors embedded in the protein.
Phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis all involve: A. the intake of large particles B. invagination of the plasma membrane C. the export of macro molecules D. the presence of receptor proteins E. the intake of fluids by the cell
B. invagination of the plasma membrane
Osmosis is a specific form of: A. diffusion B. facilitated diffusion C. active transport D. secondary active transport E. movement of water by carrier proteins
Osmosis moves water from a region of ____ to a region of ____. A. high concentration of dissolved material; low concentration of dissolved material B. low concentration of dissolved material; high concentration of dissolved material C. hypertonic solution; hypotonic solution D. negative osmotic potential; positive osmotic potential E. low concentration of water; high concentration of water
B. low concentration of dissolved material; high concentration of dissolved material
Active transport usually moves molecules: A. in the same direction as diffusion B. in the opposite direction of diffusion C. in a direction that tends to bring about equilibrium D. toward higher pH E. toward higher osmotic potential
B. in the opposite direction of diffusion
Sodium-potassium pumps are common in many cells. Which of the following are necessary for the pumps to work? A. ATP B. A channel protein C. No concentration gradient D. All of the above
Which of these cannot rapidly pass directly through the phospholipids of the plasma membrane? A. Lipid soluble molecule B. Water C. Glucose D. Hydrogen Ion
B, C & D
A semipermeable membrane is placed between the following solutions. Which solution will decrease in volume? A. Solution A: 1.4% (m/v) starch B. Solution B: 7.62% (m/v) starch
A. Solution A: 1.4% (m/v) starch The water molecules actually move in both directions, but they move to a greater extent toward Solution B because it has a higher solute concentration than Solution A. The net movement of water molecules causes Solution A to decrease in volume and Solution B to increase in volume.
A semipermeable membrane is placed between the following solutions. Which solution will increase in volume? A. Solution C: 9% (m/v) NaCl B. Solution D: 12.4% (m/v) NaCl
B. Solution D: 12.4% (m/v) NaCl The water molecules actually move in both directions, but they move to a greater extent toward Solution D because it has a higher solute concentration than Solution C. This net movement of water molecules causes Solution D to increase in volume and Solution C to decrease in volume.
What name is given to the process by which water crosses a selectively permeable membrane? A. pinocytosis B. diffusion C. osmosis D. passive transport E. phagocytosis
This cell is in a(n) _____ solution. A. isotonic B. hypertonic or isotonic C. hypotonic D. hypertonic E. hypotonic and isotonic
You know that this cell is in a(n) _____ solution because it _____.
hypertonic solution ... lost water
You know that this cell is in a(n) _____ solution because the cell _____. A. hypotonic ... swelled B. hypertonic ... lost water C. hypertonic ... gained water D. isotonic ... neither lost nor gained water E. hypotonic ... shrunk
A. hypotonic ... swelled
Structure A is a _____. A. solvent B. solute C. phospholipid D. transport protein E. water molecule
Structure B is a _____. A. solute B. transport protein C. phospholipid D. solvent E. water molecule
B. Transport protein
Secretes large molecules out of the cell: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Forms vesicles from inward folding of the plasma membrane: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Decreases the surface are of the plasma membrane: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Requires cellular energy:
A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Increases the surface area of the plasma membrane: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Requires fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Transported substances never physically across the plasma membrane: A. Exocytosis B. Endocytosis C. Both
Endocytosis moves materials _____ a cell via _____. A. out of ... diffusion B. out of ... membranous vesicles C. into ... facilitated diffusion D. into ... membranous vesicles E. into ... a transport protein
D. into ... membranous vesicles
A white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is an example of _____. A. exocytosis B. pinocytosis C. facilitated diffusion D. receptor-mediated endocytosis E. phagocytosis
According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly A. confined to the hydrophobic core of the membrane. B. randomly oriented in the membrane, with no fixed inside-outside polarity. C. free to depart from the fluid membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution. D. spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane. E. embedded in a lipid bilayer.
E. embedded in a lipid bilayer.
Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity? A. a relatively high protein content in the membrane B. a greater proportion of saturated phospholipids C. a greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared with lipids having smaller molecular masses D. a lower temperature E. a greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
E. a greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
Which of the following processes includes all others? A. osmosis B. facilitated diffusion C. passive transport D. transport of an ion down its electrochemical gradient E. diffusion of a solute across a membrane
C. passive transport